Champagne (/ʃæmˈpeɪn/, French: [ʃɑ̃paɲ]) is a sparkling wine originating in the French wine region of Champagne and produced there according to appellation rules, which require specific viticultural practices and the exclusive sourcing of the grapes. from specific places in the same specific methods of crushing the grapes and the second fermentation of the wine in the bottle to carry out carbonation. Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier, and Chardonnay grapes are used to make nearly all Champagne, but small batches of Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris (called Fromenteau in Champagne), Arbane, and Petit Meslier are also vinified. Champagne was associated with royalty in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Major producers strove to associate their champagnes with nobility and royalty through advertising and packaging, leading to their popularity among the emerging middle class.